Location: Tobaccoville, North Carolina

Tuesday, March 29, 2005

Education in Rural Columbia: Overview

Well I finally got to hear the Wallace lecture. (Computer problems at home. I think I'm buying a new one next week!) It was very interesting. I'll post a Blog later tonight about my personal opinion. This Blog contains the notes I regarding the lecture. In CAPITAL LETTERS are comments or things I thought of while listening. I'll use this points in my sythesis Blog.

Jose Jachim Salcedo 1947 Study to be Catholic Priest.

  • Interest Beyond Church matters
  • All aspects of parishioners
  • Questioned orthodoxy
  • Bucked the system
  • Radical ideas: Bucked the system
  • Different view of priest’s work: extend beyond spiritual to practical matters

Influence of elders

  • Provided the greatest challenge as punishment attempt to bring in line
  • Arranged a hardship location –
    • described as end of the world
    • Columbia in South America
    • Specifically Sutentenza
  • Sent Not to Bogota –
    • modern city with sophistication & wealth
    • Several universities,
    • wonderful museums,
    • international people
    • Sent to Andes mountains to valley of Tenza – Sutentenza
      • “Banished” there in 1947 his charge to bring religion to people

Sutentenza Area

  • People were dispersed/isolate
  • had heath & economic problems
  • illiterate with poor mortality & morbidity figures
  • Some younger children had a little literary
  • life expectancy in 40’s

Access to Schools

  • Few schools – mostly younger people
  • dropped out by grade 3 b/c difficulty to travel curriculum inappropriate
  • Children needed at home (Farm/younger siblings)

Country Problems

  • Small family farms
  • Illiterate
  • Poor health
  • Day to day existence
  • Low life expectancy
  • Outdated agriculture practices (no modern farming)
  • Extreme poverty
  • Steep terrain/people isolated & ignorant
  • Couldn’t reach all people – maybe visit all families once a year

Salcedo worried that religion not enough

  • Realized education is the key ot improving situation
  • Focus on critical needs (MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS)
  • Use of knowledge can reduce problems
  • Use of mass media to reach people (face to face communication very hard)
  • Help people participate
  • Educate & move to action – go beyond learned helplessness
  • Knowledge = reduction in problems

To visit the people

  • See people on other ridges – see across valley – sloping land
  • A day’s ride to reach other village even though you can see them
  • Transit via horse/donkey makes travel time consuming
  • Meant little time education much time travel


  • Felt was divinely inspired
  • Ham radio operating
  • Radio’s influence
    • Reach dispersed audience
    • Extend influence
    • Talk to people without having a physical presence

Radio Sutatenza – radio school


· Started in 1947 with one transmitter/three receivers

· Has had substantial growth for 50 years

· Considered “grandfather” for radio schools worldwide

· Brought news for farmers = AUDIENCE

· Crops/faming info

· Health segments

· Basic schooling (reading/writing/arithmetic) THE CONTENT

· More news report format/news specials/interviews

· Appropriate for audience

· Limited formal Instruction (3 of 18 hours)

· Considerable interviewing

· Much use of soap operas

· Musical segments

· Everything coordinated messaged even news

Focus on issues relating to his people

  • Soap Opera = ROLE PLAYING issues like people
  • Instruction –1st grade through university
  • Information – news and new bulletins
  • Complementary
  • Radio magazine
  • World trends (music, art, science, sports)
    • -services (health, opinion, sciences, analysis
    • –promotional
  • Produced 1.5 million hours of programming

Encourage people to take action –

  • people can use this knowledge to help families/crops/health problems
  • People can improve their life

Radio Schools

  • Learning should not be isolated
    • knowledge through interaction with other (i.e. more capable) SCAFFFOLDING
  • Encourage people to listen with 3-5 people
    • ideally with someone who is slightly more capable than self

Network of People

  • National level of people
  • Regional level of people
  • Local level (radio schools)
  • Paid & volunteers who worked to help Sutentenza
  • Teacher training institute
  • Located in Sutatneza
  • People learn from radio sutatnenza and then donate time to help others

Content focus

  • Most books, magazines and newspapers focused on formally educating people in cities
  • Not appropriate for the rural people
  • Created Print Resources
    • Books
    • Pamphlets
    • Newspaper
  • Content geared to radio programs
  • Coordinated messages
  • Series of textbooks that dealt with basics skills/health/good speaking/clear mathematics/productive land/ Christianity

Newspaper – Rural Farmer (Peasant)

  • Content by people from rural areas
  • Consistent focus
  • Circulation of 70,000 (readership higher) each paper read by about 10 people
  • Sections: information/recreation/knowledge


  • Encourage people to write to radio
  • Many people sent first letter they every wrote here
  • People respond to each others letters
  • Talk about problems, request information,
  • Gives insight into audience (FORM OF EVALUATION ongoing needs assessment)

  • Stay in touch with audience – know what they need
  • Based on letters adjusted content choose speakers etc.

Printing operation

  • Modern printing press
  • Large production capacity
  • First shift for them
  • Second shift for commercial uses
  • Self-funding operation (commercial use pay for ministry use)

Training institute (Leadership)

  • Located in Sutatenza – Formal & informal training
  • Immersion courses – stay for a couple of weeks train to be local leaders
  • Then stay for months study content/pedagogy/development/promotion
  • Knowledge and skill to be agriculture leader, minister, etc.
  • Prepare leaders to help people change their lives
  • Capacity for change
  • Teach essential content

Efforts blended

  • Emphasis on religion
  • Practical matters of health and agricultures
  • Becoming more capable by reading, writing, and doing arithmetic
  • Coordinated use of mass media – radio school, newspaper, broadcast textbooks

Focuses on the learners

  • Based on real needs
  • Use content that matters
  • Deliver the education in best possible manner
  • Emphasizes success
  • Requires constant evaluation and revision
  • Requires a systematic approach

Focus on education mission (MEGA VIEW)


Emphasis on Mastery learning – stay with it to most all people got it.

  • Need for constant evaluation & revision
  • Not for accountability but to improve quality of instructions
  • Evaluation lead to revision to improve instructional program

What Salcedo did

  • Analyzed – needs assessment
  • Designed – task analysis
  • Developed – align curriculum to focus on tasks/needs – people who understood audience & content did development – team approach – co-design – people who did mass media
  • Implemented – totally matched to content very IMPORTANT
  • Evaluated – constant and revisions put in palce

Instructional Systems development

  • Process for creating effective educational programs
  • Systematic approach
  • Takes the broad systems view
  • Produces superior results
  • Has not been formalized to modes
  • ADDIE design – Instructional Systems Design (PRINT OUT THIS SLIDE)
  • Very human process in design
  • Now quite systematic


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